FLOW OF COMMUNICATION
An organization is a group of people associated for business, political, professional, religious, social, or other purposes. Its activities require human beings to interact and react, that is, to communicate. They exchange information, ideas, plans, order needed supplies and make decisions, rules, proposals, contracts, and agreements. All these activities require one skill that is communication. So we can say that communication is the “Lifeline” of every organization.
An exchange of information within an organization is called internal communication. It takes place at different levels -- downwards, upwards and horizontal.
To exchange information within and outside the organization we use a variety of formal and informal forms of communication that carry the flow of information.
FLOW OF COMMUNICATION
i) Internal Communication
The formal Communication Network
• The formal flow of information follows the official chain of command.
Following is the table to help us understand this official chain of command.
Direction of flow within the organization
Organizational decisions are made at top level and then flow down to the people who carry them. When employees receive appropriate downward communication from the management, they become motivated and more efficient. They need clear job directions, safety rules, facts about organizational strategy, products, and viewpoints on important controversial issues. They are also concerned about their benefits such as health care, promotions, pensions, training, etc.
To solve problems and make intelligent decision managers need what is going on in the organization. Upward internal communication is also very important. Many executives want comments from employees in addition to the usual periodic reports. Successful managers listen closely to opinions, complaints, problems, and suggestions, especially when these are clearly put forward. They want to know about problem, emerging trends etc.
Horizontal flow takes place between peers in organizations in order to solve problems, perform job duties, prepare for meetings, and cooperate on important projects. So you can imagine that people spend time on listening to and making requests, writing notes and memos, and discussing and writing about projects. And they do it through communication.
Informal Internal Communication
Every organization has an informal communication network – a grapevine – that supplements official channel. It is important source of information. It is casual conversation of an organization.
Communication that takes place outside the organization is called external communication. The right letter, proposal, report, telephone call, or personal conversation can win back an angry customer, create a desire for a firm’s product or services, encourage collections, motivate performance, and in general, create goodwill.
Flow of External Communication
Various Aspects of External Communication
Informal External Communication
Although external communication is formal, informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning customer’s needs. Plenty of high level manager recognize the value of keeping in touch with “the real world by creating opportunities to talk with and get feedback from customers and frontline companies.
Ways of External Communication
Letters, pamphlets, annual reports, interviews with the news media etc. Any of these forms is used to communicate externally. It depends on the needs of the communication.
Effective communication internally and externally can build a good reputation and have a positive impact on the ultimate success of the individual as well as organization.